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Archaeology and Linguistics in the Andes

Suggested Interdisciplinary Reading

in preparation for the Cambridge and Lima Symposia

Recent specifically cross-disciplinary papers arising from our project include:

• A brief, popularising but useful overview of our multi-disciplinary theme, and progress achieved at the Cambridge Symposium:
download .pdf  Not the Incas? Weaving Archaeology and Language into a Single New Prehistory
Heggarty & Beresford-Jones 2009, British Academy Review 12: 11-15

• A two-part survey of the methods of historical linguistics as relevant to archaeology in general, and the prehistory of the Andes in particular:
– download .pdf Linguistics for archaeologists: principles, methods and the case of the Incas.
Heggarty 2007, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 17.3, 311-40.
– download .pdf Linguistics for archaeologists: a case-study in the Andes.
Heggarty 2008, Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 18.1, 35-56.

• On the general question of what archaeology might have to learn from historical linguistics, the following paper takes the Andes as a case-study and sets out the 'Horizons as drivers of language expansions' logic, particularly as applied to the question of the nature of the Middle Horizon:
What role for language prehistory in redefining archaeological 'culture'? A case-study on new horizons in the Andes
Beresford-Jones & Heggarty, forthcoming, in Roberts, Ben & Marc Vander Linden (eds.), Investigating Archaeological Cultures: Material Culture, Variability and Transmission. New York: Springer.
[to request an advance copy, please email: pah1003 AT]

• On the formative period from the origins of agriculture to the dawn of the Early Horizon:
Agriculture and Language Dispersals: Limitations, Refinements, and an Andean Exception?
Heggarty & Beresford-Jones, forthcoming (2009), Current Anthropology
[to request an advance copy, please email: pah1003 AT]

Many more specific papers by all participants at the Cambridge and London symposia, spanning the full span of the prehistoric and historical periods in the Andes, are currently under review for our proceedings volumes Archaeology and Language in the Andes, and History and Language in the Andes. Advance versions may be made available at the editors' discretion and contingent on the permission of the author in each case. For any such particular requests, please email: pah1003 AT


For linguists, established reference works and summary chapters giving overviews of the archaeology of the Andes, we suggest:
Andean Archaeology, ed. H. Silverman, 2004 (ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Press, includes many useful chapters, among them:
The First Settlers, by T.D. Dillehay, D. Bonavia & P. Kaulicke, pp. 16-34
Knowing the Inca Past, by J. Hiltunen. & G.F. McEwan, pp. 237-54
Andean Empires, by T. D'Altroy, & K. Schreiber, pp. 255-79.
• Burger, R.L. 1989. An overview of Peruvian Archaeology (1976-1986). Annual Review of Anthropology 18, pp. 37-69.
• Moseley, M. E. 1993. The Incas and Their Ancestors. London: Thames & Hudson.


For archaeologists, among established major works in Andean linguistics we suggest the following sections on associations with archaeology:
• Adelaar, Willem F.H., with Pieter C. Muysken, 2004. Languages of the Andes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 165‑91 & 259‑67.
• Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo, [1987] 2003. Lingüística quechua. Cuzco: Centro Bartolomé de las Casas. pp. 22 & 323-49.
• Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo, 2000. Lingüística aimara. Cuzco: Centro Bartolomé de las Casas. pp. 273‑97.
• Torero, Alfredo, 2002. Idiomas de los Andes - Lingüística e Historia. Lima: Editorial Horizonte / Institut Français des Études Andines. pp. 45‑52 & 123‑31.
• Cerrón-Palomino, Rodolfo, 1995. La Lengua de Naimlap (reconstrucción y obsolescencia del Mochica). Lima: Fondo Editorial de la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú. pp. 1‑c.48.


For participants who would like pointers to more targeted reading to literature in the other discipline that has a bearing on specific periods or regions that are their special interest, the organisers will be happy to provide more tailored suggestions. Please email us at: pah1003 AT


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