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Department of Archaeology



My multidisciplinary background combines degrees in Physics (BSc, Universitat de Barcelona) and Chemistry/Materials Science (MSc, PhD in Physical Chemistry, Universitat de Barcelona) with a long track record of working in archaeometallurgy, archaeological science, historical technology and functional analysis. After finishing my PhD at the Institute of Materials Science of Barcelona (ICMAB-CSIC) I moved to Madrid to study historical metals at the National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC) and at the History Institute (IH/CCHS-CSIC), where I combined laboratory work with field experience. I specialized in iron technology, but over the years I worked with all kind of metals from the Iberian Peninsula, Europe, the Mediterranean and Asia, chronologically ranging from prehistory to Modern Era, ultimately driven by a deep interest in the study of ancient technology, its associated technological knowledge and their role in shaping the human mind and, through it, the world.

For some time I ran my own business on research consulting and analysis of archaeological and historical metals, and over the past years I have participated in the H2020 project PARTHENOS on management of digital data in Humanities. I am currently a MSCA Fellow at the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research.


My research focuses in the study of historical metals technology, processes and functionality, and their role in shaping humans’ interactions with their environment. I worked with copper alloys, lead, gold and silver, but specialized in the technology of iron, particularly in its applications to weaponry and conflict, with special attention to contributions from the field of functional analysis of historical weapons. My research covered different geographical areas but focused in the Iberian Peninsula, spanning a wide chronological range from Prehistory to the end of the Modern Era. The analytical techniques I focused on are Metallography, XRF, SEM-EDS, PIXE and, lately, ToF-ND.

I work frequently in Cultural Heritage, especially in the area of weaponry, and have a keen interest in Heritage Science, Open Science, Open Data and the management of Digital Data in Humanities.

My current project deals with the characterization and study of pre-Roman Iron Technology in the Iberian Peninsula (IBERIRON, GA 797785, 2018-2020)


Key publications: 

Journal Articles

Ÿ“A Comprised Archaeological History of Taiwan through the Long-Term Record of Heping Dao, Keelung” María Cruz Berrocal, Elena Serrano Herrero, Marc Gener Moret, Antonio Uriarte González, Mar Torra Pérez, Susana Consuegra Rodríguez, Alexandre Chevalier, Frederique Valentin, Cheng-hwa Tsang, International Journal of Historical Archaeology (2018).

“Estudio metalúrgico de las armas ibéricas halladas en el valle de Jutia (Nerpio-Yeste, Albacete). Trabajo, armamento, ritual y comunidades de montaña” [“Metallurgical Study of the Iberian Weapons found in the Jutia Valley (Nerpio-Yeste, Albacete, Spain). Work, weaponry, rituals and mountain communities”], Marc Gener Moret, Damián Romero Perona, Susana González Reyero, Jorge García Cardiel, GLADIUS (2016), 36, pp. 7-31

“Early ironwork in Biscay: Survey, excavation, experimentation and materials characterization. An integral study of the mountainside ironworks (ferrerías de monte or “haizeolak”)” Fco. Javier Franco Pérez, Marc Gener Moret. Materials and Manufacturing Processes, (2017), 32, Issue 7-8: Ancient Metallurgy, pp. 876-884

“Una aproximación a la tecnología del hierro prehidráulico y a su estudio” [“An approximation to the technology of prehidraulic iron and to its study”], Marc Gener Moret, KOBIE. Serie Anejos (2015), 13, pp 5-12.

“Lead Provenance Study in medieval metallic materials from Madinat Al-Zahra (Medina Azahara, Córdoba)”, Marc Gener, Ignacio Montero-Ruiz, Mercedes Murillo-Barroso, Eduardo Manzano, Antonio Vallejo. Journal Of Archaeological Science (2014), 44, pp.154-163

“Characterization of European sword blades through Neutron Imaging Techniques”, F. Salvemini, F. Grazzi, S. Peetermans, M. Gener, E. H. Lehmann, M. Zoppi. The European Physical Journal – Plus, (2014), 129, pp. 202- 209.

“Late Bronze Age Hoard studied by PIXE” P.C. Gutiérrez Neira, A. Zucchiatti, I. Montero, R. Vilaça, C. Bottaini, M. Gener, A. Climent-Font, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B (2011), 269, pp. 3082–3086.

“New approaches on the Archaic trade in the North-Eastern Iberian Peninsula: exploitation and circulation of lead and silver”, Núria Rafel, Ignacio Montero-Ruiz, Pere Castanyer, Xavier Aquilué, Xosé-Lois Armada, M. Carme Belarte, Sara Fairén, Pepa Gasull, Marc Gener, Raimon Graells, Mark Hunt, Aurora Martin, Josep M. Mata, Núria Morell, Arturo Pérez, Enriqueta Pons, Martina Renzi, M. Carme Rovira, Salvador Rovira, Marta Santos, Joaquim Tremoleda, Pepa Villalba, Oxford Journal of Archaeology (2010), 29 (2), pp. 175-202.

“Caracterización analítica de la producción metalúrgica protohistórica de plata en Cataluña” [“Analytical Characterization of the protohistorical metallurgical production of silver in Catalonia”], Ignacio Montero Ruiz, Marc Gener, Mark Hunt, Martina Renzi, Salvador Rovira, Revista d’Arqueologia de Ponent, (2008), 18, pp. 292-316.

“Large scale investigation of chemical composition, structure and corrosion mechanism of bronze archaeological artefacts from Mediterranean basin”. G. M. Ingo, T. de Caro, C. Riccucci, E. Angelini, S. Grassini, S. Balbi, P. Bernardini, D. Salvi, L. Bousselmi, A. Çilingiroğlu, M. Gener, V. K. Gouda, O. Al Jarrah, S. Khosroff, Z. Mahdjoub, Z. Al Saad, W. El-Saddik, P. Vassiliou, Appl. Phys. A, (2006), 83, pp. 513-520.

Book Chapters:

"Compositional XRF Analyses of Islamic Metallic Objects from the Museo Arqueológico Nacional (MAN) in Madrid”, Marc Gener and Ignacio Montero-Ruiz, in Contadini, Anna (Ed.) “The Pisa Griffin and the Mari-Cha Lion. Art and Technology in the Medieval Mediterranean”, Pisa: Pacini Editore. In press

“Carp’s tongue swords and their use. Functional, technological and morphological aspects”, Marc Gener, in Horn, C. and Kristiansen, K., Eds. “Warfare in Bronze Age Society”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2018, pp.136-152. ISBN: 9781107185562.

“Los estudios arqueometalúrgicos de armamento de la Península Ibérica del periodo prerromano (s. VI-I ANE). Situación. Problemas. Soluciones” [“The archaeometallurgical studies of the weapons from the Pre-Roman period (6th-1st c. BCE) of the Iberian Peninsula. Situation. Problems. Solutions.”], Marc Gener Moret, and Ignacio Montero Ruiz, in Raimon Graells i Fabregat and Dirce Marzoli (Eds.), “Armas de la Hispania Prerromana / Waffen im vorrómischen Hispanien” [“Weapons in Pre-Roman Hispania”], Ed. Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums, RGZM -Tagungen 24, Mainz, 2016, p. 273-294, ISBN 978-3-88467-260-0

“Continuity and European disruption in the Hoping Dao archaeological record: excavation of test pits T2P8 and T3P1”, Cruz Berrocal, M., Serrano, E., Consuegra, S., Torra, M., Gener, M., Montón, S., Tsang, Ch., in Borao, J.E. & Hung, H.C. (eds.), 2015. “Recovering the Past of Jilong: New Archaeological Findings from Heping Island of Northern Taiwan”, Taipei: SMC Publishing Inc, pp. 117-135. ISBN: 978-957-638-771-5.

“Integrating form, function and technology in ancient swords. The concept of quality”, Marc Gener, in Uckelmann, M., Mödlinger, M., Eds., “Bronze Age Warfare: Manufacture and Use of Weaponry”, 2011, BAR International Series 2255, Archaeopress, pp. 117-124.

“Tecnología de la metalurgia del hierro” [Technology of the metallurgy if iron], Marc Gener Moret, in I. Montero (Coord.), “Manual de Arqueometalurgia. Cursos de Formación Permanente para Arqueólogos, 1”[“Manual of Archaeometallurgy. Permanent Formation Courses for Archaeologists, 1”], Museo Arqueológico Regional de la Comunidad de Madrid y Sección de Arqueología del CDL de Madrid. Madrid, 2010, pp. 189-232, ISBN 978-84-451-3315-6.

“Metallographic study of some 17th and 18th c, European sword (rapier) blades”, Marc Gener, in “2nd International Conference Archaeometallurgy in Europe 2007. Selected papers”, Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia (2009), p. 282-293. ISBN 88-85298-71-0.

“Lead and Silver Metallurgy in Emporion (L’Escala, Girona, Spain)”, Ignacio Montero-Ruiz, Pere Castanyer, Marc Gener, Mark Hunt, José María Mata, Enriqueta Pons, Salvador Rovira-Llorens, Carmen Rovira-Hortalá, Martina Renzi, Marta Santos-Retolaza, Jose Francisco Santos-Zalduegui, in “2nd International Conference Archaeometallurgy in Europe 2007. Selected papers”, Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia (2009), p. 423-434. ISBN 88-85298-71-0.


Job Titles

Marie Skłodowska-Curie European Fellow, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research

General Info

Available for consultancy
Research Expertise / Fields of study: 
Material Culture
Artefact Analysis & Technology
Cultural Heritage

Contact Details

McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research
Downing Street


Person keywords: 
History of Science and Technology
History of Metals Technology
Open Science
Cultural Heritage and Heritage Science
Weaponry and Historical Combat
Functional Analysis
Archaeological Science
Science, Technology and Innovation
Material Culture
Periods of interest: 
Copper/Bronze Age
Iron Age