skip to content
Current projects

Current Projects


1)      Parasites in the Roman Empire

2)      Environment and parasites in prehistoric Britain

3)      Parasites in the civilizations of East Asia

4)      Human lifestyle change and parasites in the Near East over the last 10,000 years

5)      Parasites, trade and wealth in the Low Countries (Netherlands and Belgium) in the medieval and renaissance periods

Books and articles


Mitchell, P.D. (ed.) Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations. Ashgate: Farnham, 2015. ISBN 978-1-4724-4907-8

Reprinted by Routledge: Abingdon 2015.



Graff, A., Jones, A., Bennion-Peddley, E., Ledger, M.L., Deforce, K., Degraeve, A., Byl, S., Mitchell, P.D. (2020) A comparative study of parasites in three latrines from Medieval and Renaissance Brussels, Belgium (14th-17thcenturies). Parasitology147(13): 1443-1451.             

Ledger, M.L., Rowan, E., Gallart-Marques, F., Sigmier, J.H., Sarkic, N., Redžić, S., Cahill, N.D.,  Mitchell P.D.(2020) Intestinal parasitic infection in the eastern Roman Empire during the Imperial Period and Late Antiquity. American Journal of Archaeology 124(4): 631-57.

Sabin, S., Yeh, H.Y., Pluskowski, A.G., Clamer, C., Mitchell, P.D., Bos, K. (2020) Estimating molecular preservation of the intestinal microbiome via metagenomic analyses of latrine sediments from two medieval cities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B375: 20190576.

Eskew, W.H., Ledger, M.L., Lloyd A., Pyles, G., Gosker, J., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Intestinal parasites from an Ottoman period latrine from Acre (Israel) dating to the early 1800s CE. Korean Journal of Parasitology 57(6): 575-580.

Knorr, D., Smith, W., Ledger, M., Clapés, R., Peña-Chocarro, L., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Intestinal parasites in six Islamic period latrines from 10th-11thcentury Córdoba (Spain) and 12th-13thcentury Mértola (Portugal). International Journal of Paleopathology 26: 75-83.

Ledger, M.L., Anastasiou, E., Shillito, L.-M., Mackay, H., Bull, I.D., Haddow, S.D., Knusel, C.J., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Parasite infection at the early farming community of Çatalhöyük, Turkey (7100-6150 BC). Antiquity 93(369): 573-87.

Ledger, M.L., Grimshaw, E., Fairey, M., Ballantyne, R., Knight, M., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Intestinal parasites at the Late Bronze Age settlement of Must Farm, in the Fens of East Anglia, UK (920-790 BC). Parasitology 

Ledger, M.L., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Tracing zoonotic parasite infections throughout human evolution. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology doi:10.1002/oa.2786.

Yeh, H.-Y., Cheng, C.J., Huang, C., Zhan, X., Wong, W.K., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Discovery of Eurytrema eggs in sediment from a colonial period latrine in in Taiwan. Korean Journal of Parasitology 57(6): 595-599.

Yeh, H.-Y., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Parasites and Baltic crusading in medieval Riga: insights into disease, diet and hygiene. In: Ecologies of Crusading, Colonization and Religious Conversion in the Medieval Baltic: Terra Sacra II. Ed. A. Pluskowski. Turnhout: Brepols, p.121-126.

Zhan, X., Yeh, H.-Y., Shin, D.-H., Chai, J.-Y., Seo, M., Mitchell, P.D. (2019) Differential change in the prevalence of the Ascaris, Trichuris, and Clonorchis infection among past east Asian populations. Korean Journal of Parasitology 57(6): 601-605.

Anastasiou, E., Papathanasiou, A., Schepartz, L.A., Mitchell, P.D. (2018) Infectious disease in the ancient Aegean: intestinal parasitic worms in the neolithic to Roman period inhabitants of Kea, Greece. Journal of Archaeological Science Reports  17: 860-64.

Ledger, M.L., Stock, F., Schwaiger, H., Knipping, M., Brückner, H., Ladstätter, S., Mitchell, P.D. (2018) Intestinal parasites from public and private latrines and the harbor canal in Roman period Ephesus, Turkey (1st c. BCE to 6th c. CE). Journal of Archaeological Science Reports 21: 289-97.

Mitchell, P.D. (2017) Human parasites in the Roman world: health consequences of conquering an empire. Parasitology 144: 48-58.

Mitchell, P.D. Sampling human remains for evidence of intestinal parasites. In: Mitchell, P.D., Brickley, M. (eds) Updated Guidelines to the Standards for Recording Human Remains. Chartered Institute for Archaeologists/British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology: Reading, 2017, p.54-56.

Williams, F., Arnold-Foster, T., Yeh, H.-Y., Ledger, M.L., Baeten, J., Poblome, J., Mitchell, P.D. (2017) Intestinal parasites from the 2nd-5th century AD latrine in the Roman baths at Sagalassos (Turkey). International Journal of Paleopathology 19: 37-42.

Yeh, H.-Y., Mitchell, P.D. (2017) Intestinal parasites in the cesspool. In: Clamer, C., Prag, K., Humbert, J.-B. (eds), Colegio de Pilar: Excavations in Jerusalem, Christian Quarter. Cahiers de la Revue Biblique, 88. Peeters: Leuven. p.154-61.

Stock, F., Knipping, M., Pint, A., Ladstatter, S., Delile, H., Heiss, A.G., Laermanns, H., Mitchell, P.D., Ployer, R., Steskal, M., Thanheiser, U., Urz, R., Wennrich, V., Bruckner, H. (2016) Human impact on Holocene sediment dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean – the example of the Roman Harbour of Ephesus. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41: 980-96.

Yeh, H.-Y., Chen, Y.-P., Mitchell, P.D. (2016) Human intestinal parasites from the Wushantou site in Neolithic Taiwan (800-0 BC). Journal of Island and Coastal Archaeology 11: 425-34.

Yeh, H.-Y., Mao, R., Wang, H., Qi, W., Mitchell, P.D. (2016) Early evidence for travel with infectious diseases along the Silk Road: intestinal parasites from 2,000 year old personal hygiene sticks in a latrine at Xuanquanzhi relay station in China. Journal Archaeological Science: Reports 9: 758-64.

Yeh, H.-Y., Mitchell, P.D. (2016) Ancient human parasites in ethnic Chinese populations. Korean Journal of Parasitology 54(5): 565-72.

Anastasiou, E., Mitchell, P.D. (2015) Human intestinal parasites and dysentery in Africa and the Middle East prior to 1500. In: Mitchell, P.D. (ed) Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations. Farnham: Ashgate pp.121-47.

Mitchell, P.D. (2015) Human parasites in medieval Europe: lifestyle, sanitation and medical treatment. Advances in Parasitology 90: 389-420.

Mitchell, P.D. (2015) Why we need to know about sanitation in the past. In: Mitchell, P.D. (ed) Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations. Farnham: Ashgate pp.1-4.

Mitchell, P.D. (2015) Assessing the impact of sanitation upon health in early human populations from hunter-gatherers to ancient civilizations, using theoretical modelling. In: Mitchell, P.D. (ed) Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations. Farnham: Ashgate pp.5-17.

Mitchell, P.D. (2015) A better understanding of sanitation and health in the past. In: Mitchell, P.D. (ed) Sanitation, Latrines and Intestinal Parasites in Past Populations. Farnham: Ashgate pp.229-33.

Mitchell, P.D. (2015) Intestinal parasites in the crusades: evidence for disease, diet, and migration. In: Boas, A. (ed) The Crusader World. Routledge: New York p. 593-606.

Yeh, H.-Y., Prag, K., Clamer, C., Humbert, J.B., Mitchell, P.D. (2015) Human intestinal parasites from a Mamluk Period cesspool in the Christian Quarter of Jerusalem: potential indicators for long distance travel in the 15th century AD. International Journal of Paleopathology 9: 69-75.

Anastasiou, E., Lorentz, K.O., Stein, G.J., Mitchell, P.D. (2014) Prehistoric schistosomiasis parasite found in the Middle East. Lancet Infectious Diseases 14: 553-4.

Yeh, H.-Y., Pluskowski, A., Kalējs, U., Mitchell, P.D. (2014) Intestinal parasites in a mid-14th century latrine from Riga, Latvia: fish tapeworm and the consumption of uncooked fish in the medieval eastern Baltic region. Journal of Archaeological Science 49: 83-89.

Anastasiou, E., Mitchell, P.D. (2013) Human intestinal parasites from a latrine in the 12th century Frankish castle of Saranda Kolones in Cyprus. International Journal of Paleopathology 3: 218-23.

Anastasiou, E. Mitchell, P.D. (2013) Simplifying the process for extracting parasitic worm eggs from cesspool and latrine sediments: a trial comparing the efficacy of widely used techniques for disaggregation. International Journal of Paleopathology 3: 204-7.

Anastasiou, E., Mitchell, P.D. (2013) Paleopathology and genes: investigating the genetics of infectious diseases in excavated human skeletal remains and mummies from past populations. Gene 528(1): 33-40.

Mitchell, P.D. (2013) The origins of human parasites: exploring the evidence for endoparasitism throughout human evolution. International Journal of Paleopathology 3: 191-98.

Mitchell, P.D. (2013) Editorial: the importance of research into ancient parasites. International Journal of Paleopathology 3: 189-190.

Mitchell, P.D., Yeh, H.-Y., Appleby, J., Buckley, R. (2013) The intestinal parasites of King Richard III. The Lancet 382: 888.

Anastasiou, E., Mitchell, P.D., Jeffries, N. (2012) The paleoparasitology of 17th-18th century London. In: Proceedings of the 12th Conference of the British Association for Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology, Ed. P.D. Mitchell, J. Buckberry. Oxford: Archaeopress p.53-61.

Mitchell, P.D., Anastasiou, E., Syon, D. (2011) Human intestinal parasites in crusader Acre: evidence for migration with disease in the Medieval Period. International Journal of Paleopathology 1: 132-37.

Mitchell, P.D., Huntley, J., Sterns, E. Bioarchaeological analysis of the 13th century latrines of the crusader hospital of St. John at Acre, Israel. In: Mallia-Milanes, V. (ed) The Military Orders: volume 3. Their History and Heritage. Aldershot: Ashgate 2008 p.213-23.

Mitchell, P.D., Stern, E., Tepper, Y. (2008) Dysentery in the crusader kingdom of Jerusalem: an ELISA analysis of two medieval latrines in the city of Acre (Israel). Journal of Archaeological Science 35(7): 1849-53.

Mitchell, P.D., Tepper, Y. (2007) Intestinal parasitic worm eggs from a crusader period cesspool in the city of Acre (Israel). Levant 39: 91-5.