Modern human dispersal into Eurasia, its relation to Neanderthal extinction, and the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition, are some of the liveliest debated issues in paleoanthropological research. The first appearance of Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) technocomplexes, e.g., the Aurignacian and the Bohunician, is of crucial importance for the discussion about the timing and nature of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal replacement debate. In order to contribute to this debate outside the well-known areas of western, southern, and central Europe, this research project focuses on the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic of Ukraine and Russia and aims to provide answers to the following questions:
▪ What behavioural and cultural adaptations contributed to the success of modern humans dispersing into Europe?
▪ Were these adaptations unique to modern humans?
▪ What were the climatic conditions under which modern humans dispersed into Europe?